Peace and Global Studies

Peace and global studies is an interdisciplinary major designed to provide students with a way to understand the origins, challenges and ethical problems of the contemporary world. Students who take this major explore how the concepts of justice and peace are linked to issues of economics, labor relations, the environment, religion, gender and family, law and human rights, communications and culture.

As an interdisciplinary major, not all courses are offered by one department. Rather, courses are drawn from various fields in the humanities, (history, philosophy, religious studies) the social sciences (political science, anthropology, sociology) and foreign languages.

An important component of peace and global studies is the study of foreign languages. Majors are required to take six credits beyond intermediate in one language and pass a proficiency examination.

Peace and global studies majors are also required to take PGS 201, an interdisciplinary introduction to peace and global studies, and a capstone course. Peace and global studies majors are required to spend at least one semester abroad. They are also encouraged to participate in internship programs and service learning.

In addition to these requirements, peace and global studies majors are required to identify a thematic and regional specialization for their course of study. The letters T or R, listed at the end of course descriptions, indicate to which specialization the course is associated.

Thematic Specializations

Human Rights & Democratization


Peace and Reconciliation

International Relations

Cross-Cultural Encounters

Regional Specializations

Sub-Saharan Africa

Latin and South America



The Middle East & North Africa

Peace and global studies majors are well positioned to find careers in government service, non-governmental organizations or to pursue graduate studies and professional training in law, management and public policy.

Peace and Global Studies Major

Core RequirementsHours
COR 100 First Year Seminar3
WRT 101 Critical Writing3
PHL 110 Introduction to Philosophy3
HST 110 - HST 111 World Civilization6
ENG 210 Major Authors3
PHL 210 Moral Philosophy3
EAC Encountering Another Culture/Language6
ENG 310 Literature and Culture3
Social Science*3
Natural Science*3
IDS Interdisciplinary Studies*3
COR 400 Transformations3
Visual & Performing Arts*1

* NOTE: Some Core requirements may be fulfilled by major requirements. See core section for more information. Because there have been substantial changes to the core curriculum, the above requirements may not apply to all students; for students who entered Le Moyne College prior to Fall 2013, be sure to consult with your advisor for appropriate course selection(s).

Peace and Global Studies Major

Major RequirementsHours
Capstone Course (2) 3
Capstone Experience (3) 3
Foreign Language (1) 18
PGS 201 Introduction to Peace & Global Studies 3
Regional Specialization (4) 12
Thematic Specialization 12
Free Electives 27

(1) Foreign Language: Students are required to take six credit hours beyond intermediate in one living foreign language and demonstrate at least an intermediate level of proficiency according to ACTFL oral proficiency guidelines.

(2) Course designated by Peace and Global Studies Program

(3) Majors are required to spend at least one semester abroad in an officially recognized academic program. The director of peace and global studies may waive this requirement in special circumstances.

(4) Supported regional specializations include Africa, Latin and South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East.

Typical Program for Peace and Global Studies Major

First SemesterHoursSecond SemesterHours
Freshman Year
WRT 1013 HST 1103
Regional Specialization3 MTH 1103
Natural Science3 Free Elective3
Sophomore Year
PGS 2013 Regional Specialization3
Thematic Specialization3 Free Elective3
Free Elective/REL3 Free Elective/REL3
Junior Year
Regional Specialization3 Thematic Specialization3
Free Elective3 Free Elective3
Capstone Experience3 Free Elective3
Senior Year
IDS3 Regional Specialization3
Capstone Seminar3 Free Elective3
Thematic Specialization3 Free Elective3
Free Elective3 Free Elective3
Free Elective3 COR 400A3

All peace and global studies majors are encouraged to study abroad during their junior year.

Double Major in Peace and Global Studies and Political Science

Please see the Department of Political Science for details.

Peace and Global Studies Minor

The minor in peace and global studies is open to all majors and those students interested in gaining a global perspective on issues of history, culture, politics and conflict resolution. Minors are required to attain an intermediate proficiency in one living foreign language and take both PGS 201 and a PGS capstone seminar. Minors must take four additional courses approved by the director of peace and global studies.

Supported thematic specializations include, but are not limited to, Human Rights and Democratization, Violence, International Relations, Cross-cultural Encounters and Peace and Reconciliation.

Peace and global studies majors will design an appropriate course of study with the director of peace and global studies.


PGS 101 (ANT 101). Introduction to Anthropology (3).

This course introduces students to the basic concepts, theories and methodologies in anthropology by focusing on the classic four fields of the discipline: physical anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and cultural anthropology. This course focuses on the evolution of the human species and theories of early culture, the reconstruction of the past through archaeological analysis, the structure and usage of language as part of culture, and the description and analysis of societies and cultures utilizing comparative theories and methodologies in cultural anthropology. No prerequisite. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.

PGS 102 (ANT 102). World Cultures (3).

What is it like to grow up in New Guinea? How do the Maya fit into the world system? Where do the Massai go when looking for a mate? This is a survey course to make you aware of various social structures and cultural practices around the world. By systematically analyzing many socio-cultural factors, such as subsistence, family, kinship, gender, political system, and religion the cause will illuminate basic similarities and differences among all peoples and cultures. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.

PGS 105 (PSC 105). Comparative Government (3).

This course will introduce you to the comparative analysis of governments, political movements, institutions, cultures, and ideologies around the world. The course will comparatively address a variety of cases including the UK, France, Brazil, Iran, China, Russia, India, Nigeria, and the U.S. Fulfills Core Requirement(s): DIV.

PGS 200 (ANT 200/GWS 200). Cultural Myths and Cultural Realities (3).

This course focuses on how we study other, especially non-western, cultures. In it, we look at recent critical debates on the nature of anthropological inquiry and the representations of other cultures that anthropologists have constructed. Is anthropology a science or humanity? How accurate are the anthropologists' representations of other cultures? Why do anthropologists studying the same culture come up with very different pictures of that culture? How much of the anthropologist's own personal and cultural biases are revealed in the way other cultures are described? How does the anthropologist's own theoretical perspective affect the way the data are interpreted? Is the nature of anthropological inquiry such that we can never escape biases? What kinds of methodologies do anthropologists use and what are their limitations? How can restudies enable us to refine our methods and generate more sophisticated comparative categories to use in the understanding of cultures? Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.

PGS 201 . Introduction to Peace & Global Studies (3).

This course will provide an introduction to Peace and Global Studies. The first segment of the course will examine different ways of thinking about peace and different methodologies to achieve a peaceful world. It will be interdisciplinary, examining the problem of peace from spiritual, psychological, anthropological, literary, histor- ical, and political perspectives. The second seg- ment of the course covers a variety of global topics and issues that are either threats to peace, pose the potential to create serious and enduring threats to the well-being of people of the world, or offer possible solutions. Taken together, the two segments of the course introduce students to some of the different approaches to peace that they will encounter and will help them to evaluate critically those approaches and perspectives. They will also have some insight into the range and complexity of the issues that are global in scope.

PGS 213 (ANT 213/GWS 213). People&Cultures Southeast Asia (3).

An anthropological and topical introduction to the region of Southeast Asia and the various societies and cultures found there. Topics to be discussed are: regional definition and intra-regional variation, ecology and economic systems, history and prehistory, social organization including politico-territorial systems and concepts of hierarchy and power, kinship and alliance systems, patron-client systems, ethnic groups and ethnicity, religions, gender systems, personality and communicative systems such as language and other conceptual and symbolic systems. The focus of the course will be on analyses that contrast with western views and that have provided a source of debate on western theories of society and culture.

PGS 223 (ANT 223/CJS 223). Global Crime (3).

This course explores illegal activity and criminalization in the context of the destabilizing effects of globalization. The course considers the transnational dimension of crime in both the developed and postcolonial parts of the world, and its connections to our own everyday lives. The course will cover the growth and character of the extra-legal networks of power and finance that shape our contemporary world, and will examine their relations with state power, corporate business, and law enforcement activities. Finally, it introduces some of the challenges of both supra-state and popular responses to illegitimate activities that are shaped by global political economy. Prerequisite: CJS 101 or ANT 101.

PGS 225 (CJS 225/SOC 225). Gangs and Criminal Community (3).

This course introduces students to gang-life as an urban phenomenon that starts in the 19th century and that in the 2000s is diffused across the margins and illicit flows of the global economy. Students will read memoirs of members of gang communities, with attention to notions of agency and iconoclasm, situating gang life in a continuum of political resistance. We will aslo look at the history of modern transnational gangs as a view into the history of displacement, modern war, and the pre-history to the discourses surrounding "global terrorism", giving students the tools for a critical reading of current debates around state security, "organized crime", and sovereignty.

PGS 261 (PSC 261). International Politics (3).

A survey of some major problems associated with international politics. Special attention also is given to the study of nationalism, the nation-state, international organization (especially the United Nations), comparative foreign policies of selected nations. An integrated one-credit service learning experience may be offered in conjunction with this course.

PGS 300 (ANT 300/FLL 301). Anthropological Linguistics (3).

An introduction to the science of linguistics, focusing on the social and cultural aspects of language. Topics to be considered are: 1) language and human nature; 2) linguistic and non-linguistic forms of communication; literate and oral cultures; 4) the basic components of language; 5) meaning in language and speech; 6) language differentiation along sociological lines (race, class, gender, etc.); and 7) the relationship between language and cultural knowledge systems, especially those of non-western cultures.

PGS 303 (PSC 303). Democracy and Its Critics (3).

The term "democracy" has become synonymous with legitimate rule. But what kind of democracy is the true fountain of legitimacy? What type of institutions are best fitted for instituting democracy? What are the conditions without which democracy cannot survive? Who is included in the phrase "we, the people"? Are democratic regimes more viable in homogenous or heterogeneous societies? Can democracy be tyrannical? This course investigates historical and contemporary controversies that reflect various challenges to democracy, the forms of actual democratic politics, and the meaning of "democracy" as a concept. Fulfills Core Requirement(s): IDS.

PGS 314 (GWS 314/ENG 340). Post-Colonial Literature and Theory (3).

This course will introduce students to theories of colonialism through the study of world literatures. What is the impact colonization on a culture? How do questions of language, race, class, and gender impact the experience of colonialism? Students will read novels and short works from a variety of formerly subject nations, including India, Nigera, Egypt, and Ireland. Short segments of theory will guide and accompany these readings. Prerequisites: WRT 101, and ENG 200, ENG 210 or ENG 218. Fulfills Core Requirement(s): DIV.

PGS 323 (ENG 323). Contemporary World Literature in English (3).

Students will read major literary works in English by writers from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. The principal texts have been published since the 1980s, and address issues such as colonialism and postcolonialism, national identity, globalization, migration, economic exploitation, and gender and sexuality. Prerequisites: WRT 101 and ENG 200 or 218.

PGS 329 (HST 329/PSC 329/GWS 329). History of Latin Amer Social Movements (3).

Will examine peaceful Latin American social change movements in historical and global context. The civil components of violent revolutions will be examined along with peaceful social movements that confronted ruthless dictatorships across Latin America, energizing democracy and expanding ethnic rights. The course will look at how these movements re-defined gender roles and placed the economic and environmentals concerns of the poor in the international spotlight.

PGS 330 (PSY 330). Cross-Cultural Psychology (3).

Cross-cultural psychology is an approach emphasizing evaluation of psychological knowledge in the context of culture. Do the discoveries psychologists have made apply to all people from all cultures or only to some people, depending on culture? This course explores the impact of society and culture on human behavior, identity and personality development, social interaction norms, and even perceptual tendencies. We will examine what it means to say that humans are socio-cultural in nature. We will also examine those areas where humans differ, due to varied cultural experiences. Areas of interest will include education and development, views on intelligence, perceptual and cognitive processes, motivation, sex and gender and aggression. The examination of these issues will aid students in developing the ability to understand and interact with individuals and groups in other countries and in our own heterogeneous nation. Fulfills Core diversity requirement.

PGS 331 . Readings in Globalization (3).

Through literature, film, and theory, this course explores the cultural and social significance of globalization and such related issues as migration, nationality, and identity. A central factor in globalization is the movement of people among different cultural locations and economic conditions, and this course will help students understand the importance of displacement in the creation of the contemporary era. Texts in this course consider what it means to identify with a plurality of linguistic, racial or cultrual positions, and address the diverse yet deeply connected experiences that define contemporary global culture. Readings by authors such as Nuruddin Farah (Somalia), M.G. Vassanji (Kenya/Tanzania/Canada), and Zadie Smith (England), and films by directors such as Atom Egoyan (Canada), Hanif Kureishi (England), and Faith Akin (Germnay/Turkey).

PGS 334 (GWS 334/PSC 334). Social Activism (3).

An experiential and academic examination of social activism in the United States. The course first explores the meaning of citizenship and the role of activism in a democratic republic. It then focuses on how activism is done by analyzing various social movements and the impact they have had on citizenship, public policy and social change. Fulfills Core Requirement(s): Interdisciplinary Studies (IDS).

PGS 335 (PHL 325). Asian Philosophy (3).

An examination of the main philosophical traditions of India and the Far East: Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. This course will focus upon mysticism as a primary determinant of Eastern thought and will seek to place these philosophies in their historical and cultural setting. (C,D)

PGS 336 (REL 336). Comparative Social Ethics (3).

The course is a study in comparative religious ethics. The course will guide students through the ethical perspectives that eastern, western, and indigenous religious traditions have developed on four social issues facing our world: the construction of sexuality and gender, social justice, violence and the environment. Prerequisite: REL 200.

PGS 343 (PHL 326/GWS 343). U.S. Latina Thought (3).

U.S. Third World women in general and Latinas in particular have raised important philosophical questions that have enriched philosophical and feminist considerations about the nature of the self, reality, knowledge and politics. This course will involve a close reading of a number of philosophical and literary texts by U.S. Latinas from a number of different social locations.

PGS 344 (PSC 344/CJS 343/SOC 343). Immigration (3).

This course examines the topic of immigration from multiple perpectives: historical comparison between current and previous waves of immigrants, politcal debates over what we should do locally and nationally, the complex economic and social impacts of immigrants(both legal and unauthorized), the changing legal environment, comparative immigration policies, and the post-9/11 national security implications of immigration. This course aims to have you explore and challenge your own views, try to make sense of completing arguments and evidence, and gain a respect for perspectives not your own. A visit to the National Immigration Museum at Ellis Island is planned.

PGS 350 (HST 350). State and Faith in the Middle East (3).

This course will examine how states used religion as a means of legitimacy and law as well as staged a desperate battle against religious forces from the Ottoman period until the present day. Islam will be the focus of the course, as a variety of fundamentalist/revivalist movements, the politicization of religion, and secularization efforts are examined throughout the Middle East. In addition, the tole of Judaism and Christianity will be discussed in regards to the eastablishment and present situation of Israel and Lebanon.

PGS 353 (PHL 353). Latin American Social Philosophy (3).

This course will study some of the major philosophical trends in Latin America in the light of both the search for cultural identity and the discovery of difference in the heart of sameness. Therefore, it will also consider those philosophies of social change which (a) provide a critique of hegemonic ideologies, (b) try to rediscover the submerged validity of pre-conquest and non-Western world views and (c) seek a dialogical integration of the diversity of voices in Latin America. (A,C)

PGS 358 (HST 358). The Cold War & Global Confront 1945-1964 (3).

An intensive study of superpower confrontations and conflicts from 1945 through 1964. Soviet and American attitudes and ideologies, the roots and origins of the Cold War, the nuclear arms race, crises and clashes in Europe and the Third World, social and cultural impacts.

PGS 362 . International Law (3).

The course will examine the theory and practice of International Law (IL) with reference to various events, which shaped the development of international law in all its forms (norms, rules, principles, precedent, custom, treaties etc). The course will emphasize current international legal norms and possibilities for future development.

PGS 363 (PSC 363). U.S. Foreign Policy (3).

This course will examine how the foreign policy of the United States is made. It will look at the sources of foreign policy, the factors which influence its formation, and the substance of past and present U.S. policies. A one-credit integrated service learning experience may be offered with this course.

PGS 364 (LGS 362/PSC 362). International Law (3).

The course will examine the theory and practice of International Law (IL) with reference to various events, which shaped the development of international law in all its forms (norms, rules, principles, precedent, custom, treaties etc). The course will emphasize current international legal norms and possibilities for future development.

PGS 365 (REL 363). Religions of Asia (3).

The practices, beliefs and history of Hinduism, Buddhism (including Japanese developments) and Taoism will be examined in this course. Particular attention will be given to the relationship of each tradition to its cultural context in the course of history and to problems confronting each tradition in the modern world. Prerequisite: REL 200.

PGS 366 (PSC 366). Globalization: the Politics of International Economic Relations (3).

This course focuses on the power relationships behind contemporary international economic events. Among the issues that will be addressed: trade and protectionism, multinational corporations, international debt, the opening of investment markets in Eastern Europe and Western-Third World economic relations. The basic principles of macroeconomics and international finance will be covered. Fulfills Core Requirement(s): Diversity (DIV).

PGS 367 (PSC 367). War, Peace and Violence (3).

This course will examine the theory and practice of the Just War doctrine. At the most general level, we will be concerned with the debate between realists, just war theorists and pacifists over the moral character of war. More specific topics include the justification of defensive, pre-emptive and preventive wars; humanitarian intervention; the combatant/noncombatant distinction; the distinction between direct and "collateral" harm to civilians; sieges, blockades and economic sanctions; guerrilla warfare; terrorism and reprisals; nuclear deterrence; and various religious conceptions of war and peace, especially those found in various Christian pacifist and Islamic traditions. Fulfills Core Requirement(s): IDS.

PGS 367S . War,Peace & Violence Service Learning (1).

Service learning experience

PGS 368 (REL 368). Rel Thought/Cult in Lat Americ (3).

This course offers a thematic examination of religious thought and culture in Latin America from the time of conquest to the present. From the perspective of cultural studies, this course explores the pervasive influence of religion in the formation of Latin America identity, culture, politics and material history. Particular attention will be given to the diversity and syncretization of religious traditions, as well as to the continuing importance and influence of pre-conquest religious ideas, values, and traditions. Topics considered include: colonialism and missionary history; influence and effects of Spanish and African religious traditions; religion and intellectual life; political movements and the theologies of liberation; relationship; relationship to U.S. Latino religious identity and traditions. Prerequisite: Rel 200.

PGS 369 (HST 359/PSC 359). Cold War & Global Upheaval,1964-Present (3).

An intensive study of the later years of the Cold War and the post-Cold War period. Continued Soviet and American rivalry combined with efforts to control the nuclear arms race, Third World "proxy wars" such as Vietnam and Afghanistan, the collapse of the Iron Curtain and end of the Soviet Union, global adjustments to the development of a unipolar world, the rise of terrorism and jihadist tendencies, social and cultural impacts.

PGS 374 (REL 374/THE 274). African Christian Theology (3).

The course examines the encounter between African traditional religions and cultures and European Christianity during nineteenth century missionary expansion into sub-Saharan Africa. It also explores the movements that gave rise to contemporary African Christian theology. Although the course is ecumenical in scope, it places particular emphasis on the Roman Catholic theological tradition.

PGS 375 (PSC 375). The New Europe: Central & Eastern Europe (3).

This course provides a comparative analysis of the political systems in Eastern Europe from 1945 to the present. The goal of this course is to provide students with a broad perspective on the changes that took place in Eastern Europe over the last century with an emphasis on the period around and after the 1989 revolutions. Fulfills Core Requirement(s): IDS and DIV.

PGS 379 (HST 379). Modern Middle East Hist 1792 - Present (3).

The last two hundred years have been a period of profound and often troubling change for the people of the Middle East. In this period, modern technology, rapid forms of travel and communication and new ideas and concepts challenged for many the certainties of religion, family, gender, and class. A fundamental feature of these two centuries has been the growing role of Europe and Europeans in the lives of the inhabitants of the Middle East. Imperialism, colonialism and nationalism set in motion a series of events that transformed the region from a place where two great empires, the Ottoman and Qajar held sway, into a dozen independent states like Turkey, Egypt, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Iran. This course uses the words, art, literature and thought of local people to understand the way these changes interacted with the intellectual, social and cultural dimensions of Middle Eastern life.

PGS 381 . Christianity in Dialogue (3).

This course will explore contemporary dialogue between Christianity and other world religions, with the aim of helping students address basic questions that arise in the course of such inter-religious relationships. Students will explore some of the basic attitudes that Christian thinkers have taken toward respectful engagement of other faiths, as well as addressing the obstacles that hinder dialogue. Furthermore, Christian approaches to interfaith dialogue will be explored intensively with respect to one particular world religion or family of traditions, which may vary as the course is offered from year to year. We will enter into the contemporary dialogue between Christianity and Hinduism. Our study will focus on Hindu-Christian dialogue as it has been enacted in both personal and communal contexts. A further focus will address the performance of dialogue through the cross-cultural interpretation of canonical texts. Prerequisite/ Corequisite: REL 200.

PGS 388 (HST 388). Coca, Culture & Politics in Latin Amer (3).

Coca has been closely connected to religion and culture in Andean South America for millennia. The plant was both cultivated and controlled by the Inca and Spanish empires. Today, peasant coca growers are part of new Latin American political movements. Global demand for the drug cocaine, made from coca, finances insurgencies, civil wars, and criminal violence in Latin America. The United States and international bodies prosecute a "War on Drugs" that targets peasant growers and traditional use as much as it does criminal organizations. This course explores the local culture and international relations of coca and cocaine. It focuses on the Latin Americans who produce and consume coca and are victimized by the violence of both the drug trade and suppression efforts.

PGS 389 (HST 389/PSC 389). Opium, Empire and State in Asia (3).

Opium is an ancient medicine that became a mainstay for European traders in Asia and the keystone of their imperial economies. After opium opened Asian states to European influence it was established as an economic necessity for multi-national empires, emerging states, and insurgencies alike. This course looks at the political, economic, and social relations of opium in Asia and the world. It examines the connections between local production and global trade in the politics of native cultures, national governments, and international relations. At the end of the semester students will be able to look at today's headlines and understand their historical roots as well their future implications. Fulfills Core: IDS.

PGS 397 (ANT 397). The Anthropology of Obesity (3).

Conversations about the obesity epidemic resonate throughout the world and the solution to growing rates of obesity often seems simple: we need to get people to exercise more and eat healthier diets. However, when viewed through an anthropological lens, obesity becomes a much more complex phenomenon, both culturally and biologically. This course will present various cultural perceptions of fatness from around the world to demonstrate that in some cultures bigger is actually viewed as a healthier outcome. Furthermore, the class will conceptualize nutritional outcomes as the culmination of political, economic, and cultural circumstances rather than merely the outcome of an individual's diet and exercise preferences. Obesity will therefore be viewed as a biocultural phenomenon and students will be encouraged to think about the relationships between biological outcomes (body sizes) and the cultural context in which these outcomes occur. The goal of this course is to ask students to think about obesity from multiple angles to being to appreciate that there is no single view of or solution to rising body weights. The broader goal is to demonstate that anthropology can bring multi-dimensional views to help alleviate public health concerns around the world.

PGS 398 (ANT 398). Special Topics: the Anthropology of Ireland (3).

The purpose of this class is to learn about the history, culture, and languages of Ireland using an anthropological perspective. This class will encompass all four-fields of anthropology since we will read texts that discuss Irish archaeology, culture, biology, and linguistics. As such, the goal is to get a holistic understanding of life in Ireland across space and time. We will take a four-part approach to the study of Ireland beginning with an exploration of pre-Christian Ireland, followed by a discussion of colonialism and partition, then a discussion of the conflict in Northern Ireland, and concluding with an examination of life in Ireland today.

PGS 399 (SOC 399). Diversity in the City (3).

Special Topic: The course focuses on the cultural, ethnic, religious and class diversity of Paris' changing landscape. Students will use Bourdieu, Goffman, Marx, and Simmel and other theorists to understand diversity, culture and identity by studying the diversity of "the city." Through readings, documentaries and a weeklong trip to Paris students will use sociological theories on society and culture to study diversity in the city. In particular the minority populations of the immigrant French communities, the recent North African immigrant communities, and the Muslim communities will be examined. This class will also explore how religous (Catholic and Muslim) as well as ethnic diversity shapes current debates on French and European citizenship. This class concludes with a 11-12 day trip to Paris that will include visits to the Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame, the Arab Institute, Luxembourg Gardens, La Mosque (Paris' mosque) and Jardin des Plantes.

PGS 400 (BUS 400). International Business (3).

The purpose of this course is to provide students with a foundation of the basic concepts and tools for the conduct of international business. Consideration is given to the managerial and operational opportunities and problems of the company operating internationally. Emphasis is on behavioral aspects and environmental factors influencing and affecting the use of international business strategies, the development of an international orientation. The role of international business as a contributor to the company's overall business objective achievement is stressed. Prerequisite: senior standing in business or permission of the instructor.

PGS 401 (HST 403). Seminar: Mexico (3).

This course provides a detailed study of Mexico from pre-Columbian times to the present day. Themes include Maya and Aztec civilizations, the Spanish conquest, Mexico under Spanish colonial rule, the independence movements of 1810-1823, the era of the Great Reforms, the Mexican Revolution of 1910, and political, social and economic developments in contemporary Mexico. Fulfills ENO/HST senior core requirement.

PGS 402 (ECO 405). Global Economic Issues (3).

Is globalization inevitable and irreversible? Who are the winners and losers? Globalization is the process of integration of markets, politics, and legal systems. Supporters of globalization believe it increases a nation's economic growth and expands opportunities for countries to trade and realize comparative advantages in their areas of strength. Opponents believe it increases inequality within and between nations, threatens employment and living standards, thwarts labor and environmental standards, and retards social progress. This course includes a description of the principles and practices of foreign trade; mechanisms of international payments; international trade policies, international trade and financial institutions; international cartels; and defines globalization; examines its impact on trade; movement of capital and labor; diffusion of knowledge and technology, and distribution of income in the world. Prerequisite: Either ECO 113 or ECO 114

PGS 404 (REL 402). Jerusalem-The Politics of Sacred Space (3).

These courses are designed to investigate the presuppositions, structures and images that underlie the human attempt to understand basic religious issues. Through various unifying foci (such as the question of God, theory and praxis, faith and justice, etc.), students will be enabled to come to a reflective understanding of their own religious assumptions and values in the context of their previous years of study. The courses will have a seminar format, with an emphasis on student discussion and active integration of material through class presentations and written work

PGS 405 (GWS 405/PSC 405). International Human Rights (3).

This course will examine the development of human right in the international system. It will explore the content of the current international human right regime -the "blue" social and political rights and the "red" economic rights, as well as "green" rights to development, a clean environment, and peace. It will explore how rights develop and are propagated and will examine the role of governments, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations in the development of rights thinking. By way of illustration, it will examine the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa and the expansion of women's rights over the last twenty years. A one-credit integrated service learning experience may be offered with this course.

PGS 406 (HST 406). Modern East Asia (3).

This course studies the history of China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with emphasis on their customs and cultures and the impact on them of modernization, imperialism, revolution and war. A seminar project and oral report are required of all students. Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement. Fulfills Core requirement(s): DIV.

PGS 407 (HST 375/PSC 407). Southern African Politics (3).

A study of political problems and dynamics in the region of Southern Africa. Focus is on the domestic politics of the Republic of South Africa, relations among the black-ruled states and between the blackruled states and South Africa, the role of external powers in the region and the conflict potential of contemporary problems.

PGS 408 (REL 400). Religion, Conflict, Peace/African Context (3).

This course is designed to introduce the class to basic questions, patterns, and contemporary issues on religion, justice, and peace in an African context. As such, the course will not be centered on the presentation of a particular narrative, thematic or structural account of the history of the multiple conflict situations in Africa. On the contrary, it is the aim of this course to take a case-study approach to the problems affecting Africa. In the light of the perspectives on Peace and Global Studies Program at Le Moyne College, we shall focus on ethnicity, religion and justice in conflict situation in African problems, it will also seek to acquaint students with how some of the socio-economic, political and religious problems affecting the continent go back to the colonial period.

PGS 409 (PHL 400). Self Knowledge,Cosmopolis&Transcendence (3).

This course pays close attention to our own historicity. Each participant will make a conscious attempt to be authentic in responding to the question, who am I, and to engage the question of the meaning of their own identity and exsistence in relation to the cosmos, transcendence, and society. The selected readings and pedagogy employed will serve as a maieutic- midwife- in the Socratic sense; inspiring the student to articulate who he or she is, and how she ought to live with others, care for the earth, and collaborate in orginating creative healing social and environmental structures. In this connection we will engage the significance and implications of the following phenomenon: "to equip an animal with intelligence constitutes not only the possibility of culture and of science but also the possibility of every abomination that has occurred in the course of human history."

PGS 413 (HST 409). Hst & Memory in Palestin-Israel Conflict (3).

T his seminar explores the Palestinian-Israeli conflict through the lens of the linked concepts of history and memory. It uses as well, the rich literature generated by the conflict to explore the connections between historiography, commemoration, museology, archaeology and power; it takes a multidisciplinary approach to an understanding of how the history of the region has been written and how the past is made to live in the lives of contemporary Palestinians and Israelis. Likewise, it interrogates how history and memory are inscribed on national and diasporan identity and problematizes phenomena like “collective memory” “transgenerational trauma” and “national history.” Fulfills ENG/HST senior core requirement.

PGS 417 (HST 417/PSC 417). Seminar: African History (3).

This course introduces students to the development of African historiography. Students will interpret, analyze and critique different methodologies and have the opportunity to pursue their own specific research interests. In addition, this course will also examine the importance of the African oral tradition, European and Arabic travel literature, archeology and anthropology in the intellectual construction of Africa. This course is designed for upper-level history majors and other interested students and will fulfill the requirements of the senior core.

PGS 422 (PHL 401). Senior Sem: Phil & Politics, East & West (3).

What is the relation between free thought and the society where it originates and is expressed? Is that relation necessarily hostile? Is this hostility a Western phenomena, or is it found in the Eastern traditions as well? Can philosophy and politics ever get along? This seminar is a cross-cultural, comparative study of the relation between philosophy and the political. It is aimed in two directions: "horizontally" - that is, we will read comparatively the founding thinkers in Chinese philosophy (Confucius and his disciples) and their U.S. "disciples" (Emerson, Thoreau) - and "vertically" - that is we will compare the use of Emerson's thought in contemporary U.S. culture with the use of Confucian teaching in contemporary Chinese culture. The seminar will help you decide whether East and West are incommensurable culturally, or whether they share the quarrel between free thought and society - that is, whether it is free thought and society that are fundamentally incommensurable.

PGS 428 (HST 428). Latin America, Since 1825 (3).

A study of the nations of Latin America from the independence period to the present. Chief emphasis on Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico: their struggle for political and economic stability, their progressive urbanization and modernization and their relations with each other and with the United States. The Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions and the policy of the United States toward Central America are also covered.

PGS 450-479 . Special Topics (3).

Courses in this series offer an in-depth exploration of specific issues within the various sub-fields of peace and global studies as well as topics of current interest to instructor and students.

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